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Human Experience - 2021-2022: Evaluating Sources

Guide for Human Experience 2020-2021

Using the CRAAAP Test to Evaluate Sources

The CRAAAP test provides a quick way to evaluate a source and includes the following guidelines:

Is that CRAAP e-card

Currency: Is it timely?
Is the information current or outdated? What is the publication date? How timely should a source be given your topic area?

Relevance: Is it important?
Is this source appropriate for your topic? Who is the intended audience?  Are you comfortable citing this?

Authority (Reliability): Is it credible
Who is the publisher or sponsor of the source? Are they trustworthy?  Who is the author?  Are they qualified to write about the topic? Do they have a history of publishing about this topic?

Access: Is it close to the source?
Is this a primary or secondary source?  How close are the authors to the original data/information/event being discussed? If the text is a translation of the primary source, is the translator cited? Is the translation authoritative and respected?

Accuracy: Is it reliable?
What evidence is available to support claims? What is the quality of evidence? Do they cite peer-reviewed journals? Can claims be proven by other sources?  What type of reasoning is used? Is it written objectively?

Purpose: Why does it exist?
What is the purpose of the source? Do they have alternative motivations? Do you sense any bias?


* This modified CRAAP test is adapted from the CLS Meriam Library in Chico.

Fact Checking Tools

Resources for fact checking:

Library Reference Databases:

Calling Bullshit

Want to learn even more strategies for identifying false claims and misleading information encountered in everyday life?  See the videos and readings in this University of Washington course, Calling Bullshit (INFO 198/BIOL 106B) by Carl T. Bergstrom and Jevin West.

Bias in the Media

The Interactive Media Bias Chart from the site All Generalizations are False categorizes news sources according to average political bias as well as overall quality.

Media bias chart 7.0

Spotting Bad Science