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HI 372: World War II

Chicago (Chicago Manual of Style)



Lowenthal, Patrick R., and Vanessa P. Dennen. "Social presence, identity, and online learning: research development and needs." Distance Education 38, no. 2 (2017): 137-140. 


Salinger, J. D. 2001. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston: Little, Brown, 2001.

The Chicago Manual of Style offers two unique ways to format your paper: Author-Date or Notes-Bibliography. Before you begin work on your paper, you should determine which version of the Chicago Style you want to use. 

The Author-Date (AD) version allows for standard citations with a Reference page. 

The Notes-Bibliography (NB) system allows for footnote or endnote citations in addition to your bibliography. 

For sample papers of both styles, review the Chicago Online Guides tab. 

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Definition:  A bibliography is usually thought of as an alphabetical listing of books at the end of a written work (book, book chapter, or article), to which the author referred during the research and writing process. The standard bibliography details the citation information of the consulted sources: author(s), date of publication, title, and publisher's name and location (and for articles: journal title, volume, issue and page numbers). The primary function of bibliographic citations is to assist the reader in finding the sources used in the writing of a work.

To these basic citations, the annotated bibliography adds descriptive and evaluative comments (i.e., an annotation), assessing the nature and value of the cited works. The addition of commentary provides the future reader or researcher essential critical information and a foundation for further research.


Depending on the assignment, the primary purpose of an annotated bibligraphy might have different purposes:

  • provide a literature review on a particular subject
  • help formulate a thesis on a subject
  • demonstrate the quality of research that you have done
  • show that you understand each source cited
  • provide examples of the types of sources available
  • describe other items on a topic that may be of interest to the reader
  • explore the subject for further research