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CM 303: Propaganda & Persuasion: Citations

Library resources and websites to help with your PSA assignment.

APA Citation Style

Requirements for APA style originate from the APA style guide which gives guidance on the writing process and includes reference citation examples.

APA Style Guides Online:

Sample Papers in APA Format

Top 5 APA Tips

Here are some important tips for writing your paper in APA style, as well as common errors that are often made. 

1. Special formatting for the Title Page
APA-formatted title pages should have the following components:

  • Running head, which consists of an abbreviated title (no more than 50 characters long) in all CAPS located in the top header on the LEFT, with the page number of the RIGHT
  • Title of the paper, name of author, and affiliation centered vertically and horizontally on the page


sample apa cover page

2. Quotations

  • Quotations of more than 40 words should be surrounded by "quotation marks."
  • Quotations longer than 40 words should be formatted as a block quote, with all lines of the quote indented
  • When citing quotations always include the page number after the year within the parenthetical citation

            Example:  (Bandura, 1977, p. 136)


3. In-text and parenthetical citations

  • In-text citations should include the author(s) and the year of publication. 


            According to Bandura, social learning theory is .... (1977).


            (Bandura, 1977)

  • If a work has 3-5 authors, in the first citation, cite all authors.  In subsequent citations, cite only the first author followed by et al.


                        First citation: Gordon, Ranaldo, Shelley, and Moore (1991)

                        Subsequent citations: Gordon et al. (1991)  OR (Gordon et al., 1991)

  • When a work has six or more authors, cite only the first author's last name followed by et al. in the first and subsequent citations.

4. References Page

  • Should start on a new page, be titled References, centered and NOT bolded.  This page should not be titled Works Cited or Bibliography.
  • Citations should be listed alphabetically, double-spaced, and have a hanging indent.

5. Citation formatting

  • Book titles - capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns.  Italicize book titles.

            Example: Social learning theory

  • Article and chapter titles - capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns.  No italics or quotation marks.

             Example:  Radical redesign of nursing homes: Applying the green house concept in Tupelo, Mississippi.

  • Periodical titles - titles should be capitalized and the entire title should be italicized

            Example:  Journal of Housing for the Elderly.

  • If a journal article is assigned a Digital Object Identofier (DOI), it must be referenced in the citation.

Finding the DOI

When citing journal articles in APA style, the Digital Object Identifier must be provided at the end of the citation.  This alpha-numeric code provides a stable, long-lasting link to the article. It is NOT the same as an ISBN or accession number.
You can find the DOI in the following places:

  • Article description page in OneSearch and other Library databases

  • Article PDF

  • Search article title in

If there is no DOI for an article, use the URL for the journal homepage or the URL for the library database where you found the article.

APA Books

Writing Center

Need help with a research paper? Visit the Eckerd College Writing Center for writing assistance.

Free Citation Managers

zotero logo

Zotero is a free, easy-to-use tool that helps you collect, organize, cite, and share citation sources for your research. It is a web browser add on and can be used with Firefox, Safari or Chrome. 

Mendeley is another free citation management tool.  It includes an online version, desktop version, and MS Word plugin for direct citations.

EndNote Web is a web-based citation management tool for organizing citations, which integrates with Web of Science.